Islamic Banking Deposit Products
Islamic Banking Deposit Products: Islamic banks receive deposits under two principles:
i) Al-Wadeeah principle.
ii) Mudaraba principle.
The fund which is deposited with Banks by the depositors with clear permission to utilize/invest the same is called Al-Wadeeah. Islamic banks receive deposits in Current Accounts on the basis of this Al-Wadeeah Principle. Islamic banks obtain permission from the Al-Wadeeah depositors to utilize the Funds at its own responsibility and the depositors would not share any profit or loss earned/incurred out of using these funds by the bank. The banks have to pay back the deposits received on the principle of Al-Wadeeah on demand of the holders. The depositors have to pay government taxes and other charges if any.
Mudaraba is a partnership of labor and capital, where one partner provides
full capital and the other one manages the business. The capital provider is called Sahib-Al-Maal and the user of the capital is called Mudarib. As per Shariah principles, the Mudarib will conduct the business independently following Shariah principles. The Sahib-Al-Maal may provide advice if he deems fit but he can not impose any decision over the Mudarib. Profit, if any, is divisible between the Sahib-Al-Maal and the Mudarib at a predetermined ratio, while loss, if any, is borne by the Sahib-Al-Maal. Mudarib can not avail of any salary or remuneration against his labour as a manager or conductor of the enterprise/business. The deposits, received by Islamic banks under this principle are called Mudaraba Deposits. Here, the depositors are called Sahib-Al-Maal and the bank is called Mudarib.
The Mudaraba deposits include:
i) Mudaraba Savings Deposits (MSD)
ii) Mudaraba Short Notice Deposits (MSND)
iii) Mudaraba Term Deposits (MTD).
Different Islamic banks have developed various deposit schemes on the basis of this Mudaraba principle such as monthly deposit-based Hajj Scheme, Monthly/One-time deposit-based Term Deposit Scheme, Monthly Mudaraba Profit Deposit Scheme, Monthly Mudaraba Marriage Savings Scheme, Mudaraba Savings Bond etc.