Tips of Bank's Viva

Tips of Bank’s Viva

Table of Contents

Tips of Bank’s Viva

  1. Question: Why do you want to make a career in the banking sector?

Answer: Career in the banking sector. Here are some common reasons:

  1. Stability and Security: The banking sector is known for its stability and job security, especially in established institutions. This can be appealing to individuals seeking a reliable career path.
  2. Growth and Advancement Opportunities: Banks often offer clear career progression paths and opportunities for professional growth. Employees can move up the ranks, take on more responsibilities, and access higher positions with increased experience and qualifications.
  3. Competitive Compensation: The banking industry generally offers competitive salaries and benefits packages. This can be an attractive aspect for individuals seeking financial rewards and stability.
  4. Diverse Career Options: The banking sector encompasses a wide range of roles, including retail banking, investment banking, risk management, finance, compliance, and more. This diversity allows individuals to choose a career path that aligns with their skills, interests, and aspirations.
  5. Exposure to Global Markets: Banks operate on a global scale and often deal with international clients and markets. Working in the banking sector can provide opportunities to engage with diverse cultures, gain insights into global economies, and develop a broader perspective.
  6. Skill Development: The banking sector offers opportunities for skill development in various areas, such as finance, accounting, risk assessment, customer service, and leadership. These skills can be transferable and valuable in different industries.
  7. Impact and Influence: Banks play a crucial role in the economy by facilitating financial transactions, supporting businesses, and providing individuals with access to financial services. Working in the banking sector allows individuals to contribute to the economic development of their communities and have a direct impact on people’s lives.

It’s important to note that these reasons may vary from person to person, and individuals may have their own unique motivations for pursuing a career in the banking sector.


2. Question: Can you elaborate on the types of bank accounts?

There are several types of bank accounts that cater to different needs and preferences. Here are some common types of bank accounts:

  1. Checking Accounts: Also known as current accounts or transactional accounts, checking accounts are designed for everyday banking transactions. They offer features such as check writing, debit card access, online banking, and bill payments. Checking accounts usually do not earn significant interest but provide easy access to funds.
  2. Savings Accounts: Savings accounts are intended for individuals to save money over time. They typically offer a modest interest rate to help grow savings. These accounts may have limitations on the number of withdrawals or transfers per month and usually do not come with check-writing privileges. Savings accounts are often used to build an emergency fund or save for specific goals.
  3. Money Market Accounts (MMAs): Money market accounts combine features of checking and savings accounts. They usually offer higher interest rates than regular savings accounts, but they may require a higher minimum balance to open and maintain the account. MMAs often come with check-writing capabilities and provide limited access to funds.
  4. Certificates of Deposit (CDs): CDs are time deposits that offer higher interest rates than regular savings accounts. When you open a CD, you agree to keep the funds deposited for a specific term, ranging from a few months to several years. Early withdrawal from a CD may result in penalties. CDs are ideal for individuals looking for a safe and predictable way to grow their money over a fixed period.
  5. Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs): IRAs are retirement savings accounts that offer certain tax advantages. There are different types of IRAs, including Traditional IRAs and Roth IRAs. Contributions to Traditional IRAs may be tax-deductible, while Roth IRA contributions are made with after-tax income. IRAs have contribution limits and specific rules regarding withdrawals and penalties.
  6. Business Accounts: Business accounts are designed for small businesses, corporations, or sole proprietors. They provide features tailored to business needs, such as the ability to accept payments, make business-related transactions, and manage cash flow. Business accounts may include checking accounts, savings accounts, and additional services like merchant services and business loans.

These are just a few examples of the types of bank accounts available. It’s important to research and consider your financial goals and needs when choosing the right type of bank account for you.

3. Question: Can you differentiate between FDI and FII?

FDI and FII are both terms used in the context of foreign investment, but they represent different types of investment:

  1. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): FDI refers to investments made by foreign individuals, companies, or entities in a country’s businesses or assets with the intention of establishing a lasting interest and control in the invested enterprise. In FDI, the investor acquires a significant ownership stake (typically 10% or more) in a company located in a foreign country. FDI often involves long-term commitments and can contribute to the growth and development of the receiving country’s economy. Examples of FDI include establishing factories, opening subsidiaries, or acquiring local companies in a foreign country.
  2. Foreign Institutional Investment (FII): FII, also known as portfolio investment, refers to the investment made by foreign individuals, institutional investors (such as mutual funds, pension funds, and hedge funds), or non-resident entities in the financial assets of a country. Unlike FDI, FII does not involve a direct ownership stake or control in the invested company. FIIs typically invest in stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or other securities of a country’s financial markets. FIIs are generally more focused on short-term investments and can enter or exit a market relatively quickly based on market conditions and investment opportunities.

In summary, the main difference between FDI and FII lies in the nature of the investment. FDI involves a long-term investment in a company or asset with the aim of establishing ownership and control, while FII refers to short-term investments in financial assets without acquiring direct ownership or control.

Can you elaborate on amortization?

Amortization refers to the process of gradually reducing or paying off a debt or loan over a specific period of time through scheduled payments. It involves the systematic repayment of both the principal amount borrowed and the accrued interest.

Here are some key points to understand about amortization:

  1. Principal Amount: The principal amount is the initial sum borrowed or the outstanding balance of the loan. Each amortization payment contributes towards reducing the principal amount owed.
  2. Interest: Lenders charge interest on the borrowed amount as a cost for lending money. The interest is calculated based on the outstanding balance of the loan and the interest rate agreed upon. During the early stages of amortization, a larger portion of the payment goes towards interest, while the remaining amount is used to reduce the principal.
  3. Amortization Schedule: An amortization schedule is a table or chart that outlines the repayment plan for the loan. It provides a detailed breakdown of each payment over the loan term, including the payment amount, interest paid, principal paid, and the remaining balance after each payment.
  4. Equal Payments: In most cases, amortization involves equal periodic payments throughout the loan term. Each payment includes a portion that goes towards interest and a portion that reduces the principal. As the loan progresses, the interest portion decreases, and the principal portion increases.
  5. Loan Term: The loan term refers to the duration over which the loan is repaid. It can vary depending on the type of loan and the agreement between the lender and borrower. Common loan terms include monthly, quarterly, or annual payments over a fixed number of years.
  6. Amortization Methods: There are different methods of calculating amortization, such as the straight-line method and the declining balance method. The straight-line method evenly distributes the principal and interest payments over the loan term, while the declining balance method allocates a higher portion of the payment towards interest in the early stages and gradually reduces it over time.

Amortization is commonly used in mortgages, car loans, personal loans, and other types of installment loans. It allows borrowers to repay their debts in a structured manner, ensuring that both the principal and interest are gradually paid off within the agreed timeframe.

How will you calculate the debt to income ratio?

To calculate the debt-to-income ratio (DTI), you need to divide your total monthly debt payments by your gross monthly income and express the result as a percentage. Here’s the step-by-step calculation:

  1. Determine Total Monthly Debt Payments: Add up all your monthly debt obligations, including but not limited to:
    • Mortgage or rent payments
    • Loan payments (e.g., car loans, student loans)
    • Minimum credit card payments
    • Personal loans
    • Other monthly debt obligations
  2. Calculate Gross Monthly Income: Determine your gross monthly income, which includes your total income before deductions and taxes. This may include:
    • Salary or wages
    • Income from self-employment or business
    • Rental income
    • Investment income
    • Any other regular sources of income
  3. Divide Total Monthly Debt Payments by Gross Monthly Income: Take the total monthly debt payments calculated in step 1 and divide it by your gross monthly income from step 2.DTI = (Total Monthly Debt Payments / Gross Monthly Income) x 100
  4. Convert to Percentage: Multiply the result by 100 to express the DTI as a percentage.

For example, let’s say your total monthly debt payments amount to $1,500, and your gross monthly income is $5,000.

DTI = ($1,500 / $5,000) x 100 = 0.3 x 100 = 30%

In this example, your DTI ratio would be 30%.

The debt-to-income ratio is commonly used by lenders to assess an individual’s ability to manage additional debt and make loan repayments. A lower DTI ratio is generally considered favorable, indicating a lower level of debt compared to income and a higher capacity to handle new financial obligations.

What do you understand by a charge-off?

A charge-off is a term used in the context of accounting and lending. It refers to the process where a creditor or lender considers a debt as unlikely to be collected and removes it from their books as a loss. When a debt is charged off, it does not mean that the borrower is no longer responsible for repaying the debt. Instead, it indicates that the lender has deemed the debt as uncollectible for accounting purposes.

Here are a few key points to understand about charge-offs:

  1. Definition: A charge-off occurs when a creditor determines that a borrower is significantly delinquent on their payments and there is little chance of recovering the full amount owed. Typically, a charge-off is declared after a certain period of non-payment, often around 180 days.
  2. Accounting Treatment: When a debt is charged off, the lender removes the outstanding balance from their balance sheet as a loss or bad debt expense. This accounting practice allows the lender to reflect the financial impact of the uncollectible debt.
  3. Collection Efforts: Even though a debt is charged off, it does not absolve the borrower of their obligation to repay the debt. The lender or a collection agency may continue their efforts to collect the debt or may sell the debt to a third-party collection agency.
  4. Credit Reporting: A charge-off has a significant negative impact on a borrower’s credit report and credit score. It indicates a serious delinquency and can remain on the credit report for up to seven years from the date of the first delinquency. The presence of a charge-off makes it harder for the borrower to obtain credit in the future.
  5. Debt Resolution: Borrowers should not disregard a charged-off debt. It is important to address the debt through repayment or negotiation with the lender or collection agency. Resolving the debt can help improve credit standing over time.

It’s essential to note that even after a charge-off, the borrower may still be pursued for the debt. Therefore, it is advisable for borrowers facing financial difficulties to communicate with their lenders and explore options for debt repayment or negotiation before a charge-off occurs.

With the banking scenario changing constantly, what do you think are the needs of the banking sector?

The banking sector is indeed experiencing continuous changes due to various factors such as technological advancements, evolving customer expectations, regulatory developments, and economic trends. In this dynamic environment, several needs emerge for the banking sector to stay relevant and meet the demands of the market. Here are some key needs:

  1. Digital Transformation: With the rise of digital technologies, there is a growing need for banks to embrace digital transformation. This includes investing in robust digital infrastructure, enhancing online and mobile banking capabilities, implementing secure and convenient digital payment systems, and providing personalized digital experiences to customers.
  2. Cybersecurity and Data Privacy: As banking operations increasingly rely on digital channels and data-driven technologies, safeguarding customer data and maintaining robust cybersecurity measures become paramount. Banks need to continuously invest in cybersecurity systems, adopt advanced authentication methods, and ensure compliance with data privacy regulations to protect customer information and prevent financial fraud.
  3. Customer-Centric Approach: Customer expectations have evolved, and there is a need for banks to adopt a customer-centric approach. This involves providing personalized and seamless customer experiences across various touchpoints, offering tailored financial solutions, leveraging customer data to understand their needs, and delivering responsive and efficient customer service.
  4. Innovation and Collaboration: To stay competitive and meet the changing demands of customers, banks
  5. environment, and ensuring regulatory compliance is a critical need for the banking sector. Banks must stay updated with changing regulations, implement robust risk management frameworks, and maintain transparency in their operations. Compliance with regulations related to anti-money laundering (AML), Know Your Customer (KYC), data protection, and consumer rights is essential to maintain trust and credibility.
    1. Financial Inclusion: Promoting financial inclusion is another important need for the banking sector. Banks should strive to provide access to basic financial services to underserved and unbanked populations, both in traditional and digital formats. This may involve developing innovative products and services that cater to the unique needs of these individuals, leveraging technology to reach remote areas, and partnering with government and non-profit organizations to promote financial literacy and inclusion initiatives.
    2. Talent Development: As the banking landscape evolves, there is a need for a skilled and adaptable workforce. Banks should focus on talent development programs to equip employees with the necessary digital skills, knowledge of emerging technologies, and customer-centric mindsets. Investing in employee training, upskilling, and fostering a culture of continuous learning will be crucial to meet the changing needs of the sector.
    3. Risk Management: With evolving financial risks, effective risk management practices are vital for the banking sector. Banks need to enhance their risk assessment capabilities, strengthen internal controls, and develop strategies to mitigate risks associated with cybersecurity, credit, market fluctuations, and regulatory changes. Implementing robust risk management frameworks ensures the stability and resilience of the banking sector.

    These are some of the key needs of the banking sector in the current scenario. Adapting to technological advancements, prioritizing customer needs, embracing innovation, complying with regulations, promoting financial inclusion, developing talent, and managing risks are all essential for the long-term success and sustainability of banks in an ever-changing environment.

What are the common ways to operate your bank accounts?

There are several common ways to operate bank accounts, providing individuals with flexibility and convenience in managing their finances. Here are some of the common methods:

  1. In-Person Branch Banking: Traditional branch banking allows customers to visit a physical bank branch and conduct various transactions with the assistance of bank staff. This includes depositing or withdrawing cash, opening new accounts, requesting account statements, and discussing financial matters face-to-face.
  2. Online Banking: Online banking enables customers to access their bank accounts and perform a wide range of transactions through the internet. This includes checking account balances, transferring funds between accounts, paying bills, setting up automatic payments, applying for loans, and managing personal information. Online banking offers convenience and 24/7 access to banking services from anywhere with an internet connection.
  3. Mobile Banking: Mobile banking involves using banking applications or mobile websites on smartphones or tablets to manage bank accounts. Mobile banking apps provide similar functionalities as online banking, allowing users to check balances, transfer funds, pay bills, deposit checks using mobile check deposit features, and receive notifications about account activity. Mobile banking offers the convenience of accessing banking services on the go.
  4. Telephone Banking: Some banks offer telephone banking services, allowing customers to access their accounts and perform transactions over the phone. Customers can use automated systems or speak with customer service representatives to inquire about account balances, transfer funds, make bill payments, or report lost or stolen cards.
  5. ATM (Automated Teller Machine) Banking: ATMs provide self-service banking options, enabling customers to perform various transactions without visiting a branch or interacting with bank staff. ATMs allow users to withdraw cash, deposit checks or cash, transfer funds between accounts, check balances, and sometimes pay bills.
  6. Debit and Credit Cards: Debit and credit cards provide convenient access to bank accounts. Debit cards allow customers to make purchases using funds directly from their checking accounts, while credit cards allow for purchases on credit, which must be repaid later. Cardholders can use their cards to make payments at point-of-sale terminals, online merchants, and withdraw cash from ATMs.

It’s important to note that the availability and range of services may vary depending on the bank and the country of operation. Additionally, banks may offer a combination of these methods to cater to customers’ preferences and provide a comprehensive banking experience.

What do you understand by loan grading?

Loan grading, also known as credit grading or loan classification, is a process used by banks and financial institutions to assess the credit quality and risk associated with a loan. It involves evaluating and assigning a grade or classification to each loan based on various factors that determine the likelihood of repayment and the level of credit risk involved.

Here are some key points to understand about loan grading:

  1. Risk Assessment: The purpose of loan grading is to evaluate the risk associated with each loan. Lenders assess factors such as the borrower’s credit history, financial stability, repayment capacity, collateral (if applicable), and the purpose of the loan. These factors help determine the likelihood of timely repayment and the potential for default.
  2. Grading Criteria: Banks typically use a grading system or scale to categorize loans based on their credit quality. The grading criteria may vary between institutions, but it commonly includes factors such as the borrower’s credit score, debt-to-income ratio, business financials (for commercial loans), and the overall risk profile of the loan.
  3. Loan Grades or Classifications: Loans are typically assigned grades or classifications based on their credit quality. These grades may range from low risk (e.g., grade A or 1) to high risk (e.g., grade D or 4). Each grade represents a specific level of creditworthiness and associated risk, helping the lender assess the probability of default and set appropriate terms and conditions for the loan.
  4. Implications for Pricing and Terms: Loan grading has implications for the interest rate, pricing, and terms of the loan. Lower-risk loans with higher grades are likely to receive more favorable terms, such as lower interest rates and longer repayment periods, as they are considered safer for the lender. Higher-risk loans may come with stricter conditions, higher interest rates, or additional collateral requirements to compensate for the increased credit risk.
  5. Monitoring and Portfolio Management: Loan grading is not a one-time assessment. Lenders regularly review and monitor the credit quality of their loan portfolios. Changes in the borrower’s financial situation or economic conditions may lead to loan grade revisions. Ongoing monitoring helps lenders identify potential credit issues, take proactive measures to manage risk, and make informed decisions about loan renewals, modifications, or collections.

Loan grading plays a crucial role in risk management for banks and financial institutions. It helps them assess and monitor the credit quality of their loan portfolios, make informed lending decisions, price loans appropriately, and manage overall credit risk exposure.

What is the line of credit?

A line of credit is a flexible borrowing arrangement offered by financial institutions, such as banks or credit unions, that allows individuals or businesses to access funds up to a predetermined credit limit. It is a form of revolving credit that provides borrowers with the ability to borrow and repay funds as needed within the set limit.

Here are some key points to understand about a line of credit:

  1. Flexibility: Unlike a traditional loan where you receive a lump sum of money upfront, a line of credit provides ongoing access to funds. Borrowers can withdraw funds from the line of credit whenever they need, up to the approved credit limit. They can also repay the borrowed amount and borrow again within the available credit limit, making it a flexible borrowing option.
  2. Credit Limit: The lender establishes a maximum credit limit for the line of credit based on various factors, such as the borrower’s creditworthiness, income, and collateral (if applicable). The credit limit represents the maximum amount that the borrower can borrow from the line of credit.
  3. Revolving Nature: A line of credit operates on a revolving basis, similar to a credit card. As the borrower repays the borrowed amount, those funds become available again for future borrowing. This revolving feature distinguishes it from a term loan, where the funds are disbursed once and repaid in fixed installments.
  4. Interest and Repayment: Borrowers are typically charged interest only on the amount they borrow from the line of credit, not on the entire credit limit. The interest rate may be variable or fixed, depending on the terms of the line of credit. Minimum monthly payments are required, usually based on a percentage of the outstanding balance, but borrowers can choose to repay more than the minimum.
  5. Purpose and Usage: A line of credit can serve various purposes. It can be used for personal expenses, home renovations, business working capital, managing cash flow, or as a safety net for unexpected expenses. The funds can be accessed through checks, electronic transfers, or by using a linked debit card, depending on the specific terms of the line of credit.
  6. Renewal and Review: Lines of credit may have an expiration date, after which the borrower needs to renew the line of credit if they wish to continue using it. Lenders may periodically review the borrower’s creditworthiness and financial situation to assess whether to renew or adjust the credit limit.

It’s important to note that the terms and conditions of a line of credit can vary among financial institutions, so it’s advisable to carefully review the agreement and understand the specific terms, including interest rates, repayment terms, fees, and any applicable conditions or restrictions.

What are the software banking applications available in the industry?

The banking industry relies on various software applications to streamline operations, enhance customer experiences, and ensure efficient management of financial services. Here are some commonly used software banking applications in the industry:

  1. Core Banking Systems: Core banking software is the primary system that supports essential banking functions, including customer account management, transaction processing, deposit and loan management, and general ledger operations. These systems form the backbone of banking operations, providing centralized data management and facilitating efficient banking processes.
  2. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systems: CRM software enables banks to manage and analyze customer interactions, track customer information, and enhance customer engagement. CRM systems help banks understand customer needs, personalize services, and improve customer satisfaction by maintaining a comprehensive view of customer relationships and communication.
  3. Online and Mobile Banking Applications: Banks offer online and mobile banking applications to enable customers to access their accounts, perform transactions, and access banking services through web browsers or mobile devices. These applications allow users to check account balances, transfer funds, pay bills, view transaction history, and manage their finances conveniently and securely.
  4. Payment Processing Systems: Payment processing software facilitates the secure and efficient processing of various types of transactions, including card payments, electronic fund transfers, and online payments. These systems integrate with payment gateways, card networks, and other financial institutions to enable seamless payment processing.
  5. Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Fraud Detection Systems: AML and fraud detection software helps banks identify and prevent suspicious activities, money laundering, and fraudulent transactions. These systems employ advanced analytics, pattern recognition, and rules-based algorithms to detect anomalies and flag potential risks, enhancing regulatory compliance and protecting the bank and its customers.
  6. Risk Management Systems: Risk management software helps banks assess, monitor, and mitigate risks associated with lending, investments, credit, market fluctuations, and compliance. These systems provide tools for risk assessment, stress testing, portfolio management, and regulatory reporting to ensure sound risk management practices within the bank.
  7. Data Analytics and Business Intelligence Systems: Data analytics and business intelligence software enable banks to analyze vast amounts of data to gain insights into customer behavior, market trends, and operational efficiency. These systems help banks make informed decisions, optimize processes, identify growth opportunities, and improve risk management strategies.
  8. Treasury Management Systems: Treasury management software assists banks in managing their treasury operations, including cash management, liquidity management, risk management, and investment portfolio management. These systems provide real-time visibility into cash positions, automate treasury processes, and optimize treasury operations.
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It’s important to note that the specific software applications used may vary among banks and financial institutions, as each institution may have unique requirements and choose software solutions tailored to their specific needs.

Bank Viva Preparation

Tips of Bank’s Viva